Removed along with her, self-declaration and physiological data signify the new speech-preparation task created stress and you may cardio reactivity that was somewhat various other of baseline membership; these details didn’t are very different centered on intercourse and characteristic strength
To test these types of hypotheses, Tugade catholic singles sign up and you can Fredrickson (2004) accumulated continuing steps from cardio answering from every people (N = 57) on a sampling rate off one thousand Hz. Six indices from cardiovascular reacting was basically obtained, together with (1) heartrate (HR), (2) hand pulse amplitude (FPA), (3) heartbeat sign times to your digit (PTF), (4) heart circulation signal time for you this new ear (PTE), (5) diastolic hypertension (DBP), and you can (6) systolic blood pressure levels (SBP). Immediately following a sleep baseline, nervousness is experimentally created from the telling players which they might have 60 sec in order to psychologically get ready a demonstration toward a personal-associated situation. Following the sixty-sec, speech-planning activity, there’s a good step 3-min healing period. Players along with done care about-records out of subjective emotional experience, background positive and negative feeling (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1989), and you can attribute resilience (Cut-off & Kremen, 1996).
Results showed that, all over all of the users, the latest message preparing activity introduced subjective experience out of nervousness and you may develops into the cardiovascular reactivity out of baseline (come across Dining table step 1 ). Such alter echo activity-caused, cardio pleasure, with pulse rate acceleration, improved blood pressure levels, and you can peripheral vasoconstriction.
Table step 1
Note. Reproduced which have permission from the APA. Time = pulse rate within the beats for each and every min; FPA = little finger pulse amplitude from inside the mv; PTF = heart circulation signal time and energy to the latest finger and you may PTE = heart circulation sign time to the fresh new ear, per into the msec; DBP = diastolic hypertension and SBP = systolic blood pressure level, for each and every for the mmHg. Asterices mean alter somewhat various other form standard strategies because of the within this-topic t-screening (df = 55).
Our first prediction was that trait resilience would predict subjective reports of positive emotionality. Results revealed support for this prediction: Trait resilience was positively associated with positive mood as assessed by the PANAS (Watson et al., 1988) (r = .38, p<.01), (but not associated with negative mood). Adding further support to our first prediction, we found that higher trait resilience was associated with more happiness (r = .47, p<.01) and more interest (r = .33, p<.01) during the speech preparation task. To quantify positive emotionality in a single measure, we created a composite index by summing the standardized scores of positive mood and standardized emotion reports of happiness in response to the speech preparation task. 1 As predicted, trait resilience was positively related to the positive emotionality composite index (r = .46, p<.001).
Our second prediction was that psychological resilience would be negatively related with duration of cardiovascular reactivity. We calculated an aggregate index of duration of cardiovascular reactivity (time to return to baseline levels) for each participant by computing the mean duration score across the six cardiovascular indices (for a detailed description of this data-reduction technique, see Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998). As predicted, findings demonstrated that trait resilience was negatively correlated to duration of cardiovascular reactivity (r = ?.26, p<.05), indicating that those with higher trait resilience evidenced faster cardiovascular recovery from negative emotional arousal.
Our final prediction stated that positive emotions would mediate the effect of resilience on duration of cardiovascular reactivity following the speech-preparation task. The statistical analysis framework suggested by Baron and Kenny (1986) was used to test for mediation effects. Findings revealed support for our final prediction: Data indicated that the effect of trait resilience on duration of cardiovascular reactivity was no longer significant when controlling for positive emotionality (Beta = ?.15, t<1, ns) (for full details of the test of mediation, please refer to Tugade & Fredrickson, 2004).